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Welcome to Bo's Word Tips-n-Tricks VOL 3

Microsoft Word Security Bulletin     


  2. Reformatting in Word 97/2000
  7. How can I import and export all my AutoCorrect entries, so they can be transferred to another machine?
  10. Stop Warping your mouse in large documents. Switch to sublight speed (It's a StarTrek thing). Make mouse selections in Word more manageable with these key mouse combinations.
  20. No time to read a lengthy document? Have Word summarize it for you. Here is how:
  21. Number lists in Word 97 get all fouled up. Why?
  25. FIXING THE PAGE MARGINS-When your footers don't print
  27. Need to add different foreign characters in your documents? Check out this article on making use of the AutoCorrect feature in word. Click here This is a downloaded RTF document.
  30. View your fonts before you use them. Try PCC Real Fonts. It works in most Office 97 applications. Click here to learn more and to download.
  31. Squishy Justification - Make Right Justify a little bit tighter - here is how
  34. Inserting Fractions In Word

Inserting Fractions In Word
(Works in Word 97, 2000, 2002, and it isn't any easier in 2003. Or so I have been told.)

Some of our readers have been asking lately about fractions in Word. You probably know that you can tell Word to turn "1/2", "1/4" and "3/4" into their respective "real" fractions:
Click Tools | AutoCorrect (or AutoCorrect Options) | AutoFormat As You Type, and check the box marked "Fractions (1/2) With Fraction Character (1/2)".  Right?

When that box is checked, Word watches over your shoulder as you type, and if you type 1/2, Word runs out to the font that you're using, sees if there's a pre-built fancy 1/2 character that's included with the font and, if so, removes the three characters "1", "/", and "2", and replaces them with the pre-built 1/2 character.

Word does the same thing if you type 1/4 or 3/4. But it doesn't do squat if you type 1/3 or 5/8.

Sound complicated? It isn't. Just a bit of smoke and mirrors. To see what's happening, try this experiment:

  1. Start Word.
  2. Click Tools | AutoCorrect (or AutoCorrect Options, if you're using Word 2002) | AutoFormat As You Type, and make sure the box marked "Fractions (1/2) With Fraction Character (1/2)" is checked. Click Ok to get out of the dialog box.
  3. Back out in your Word document, type 1/4 and a space. The three characters, 1, /, and 4 should be automatically replaced by a single character that says "1/4".
  4. Click Insert | Symbol. In the Font box pick (normal text).
  5. Scroll down the list of characters until you see the "1/4" character. It should be after all of the normal characters, currency symbols, and a bunch of weird characters.
  6. Double-click on the "1/4" character, then click Close.

    Your Word document now has two "1/4" characters, right next to each other.
  7. Click the Zoom box on your Standard toolbar, or click View | Zoom. Swing the Zoom factor up to, oh, 200%. Take a good look at the two "1/4" characters. They're identical. Word has swapped out your three characters - 1, /, and 4 - and replaced them with this pre-built fancy fraction, which is just one character.

Every "normal" font these days ships with three pre-built fancy fractions - 1/4, 1/2, and 3/4 - all hand-tuned and made to match the font itself.

Unfortunately, if you want more than those three fractions, you either have to pull them in from a Unicode font (such as Arial Unicode MS, which has a LOT of fractions - look under the "Number Forms" Subset in Insert | Symbol), or you have to format the fractions yourself.

If you create a lot of pages with these fancy built in fractions and then go to add a type fraction such as 2/3 which is of course a 2, a/ and a 3. If you use these types of fractions most people will get the idea of what you are trying to do but they may come away feeling a tad disorientated, especially if you also use some of those fancy built in fractions.

There is a way around that though the hand made types I am explaining below aren't as good as those fancy kind they are less likely to cause your readers to go away scratching their heads.

Here is how to make your own hand made fractions:

  1. Start with a blank page.
  2. Type 1/4 and a space, so you get one of those fancy pre-built "1/4" characters on your screen.
  3. Click on the Zoom box on the Standard Toolbar and run the zoom up to 200%, or thereabouts. You want to see a magnified view so you can eyeball the fraction you're going to build, and try to make it look as much like the fancy "1/4" as possible.
  4. Type the fraction you want to create. For example, you might want to type

  5. Select the first number. (In this example, you would select the "2".) Click Format | Font, and make the font smaller, over in the Size box. In my experiments with Garamond, Arial and Times New Roman at 10 and 11 points (which are the fonts and sizes I normally use), I found that 6 points was about right. A little experimenting will find one just right for your choices.
  6. Click the Character Spacing Tab and in the Position box pick Raised. You want to raise (superscript) the first number. I found that when I was using 11 point text, raising the first number by 4 points was about right. When using 10 point text, raising by 3 points looked best to me. You be the judge. When you're happy, click OK.
  7. Select the last number. (In this example, you would select the "3".) Click Format | Font, and make the font the same size as you did for the first number. Again, I found 6 point just about right.
  8. Now select the first number, the slash, and the second number, all together. Click Format | Font | Character Spacing. In the Spacing box, pick Condensed, and adjust the "squish factor" - the amount of space Word should squeeze out between the first number, slash, and last number. I found that 1 point worked best for my usual text.

Take a gander under high zoom factor. I bet you'll find that your fractions don't look as good as the built-in fractions. For one thing, the slash isn't exactly the same. For another, the numbers "fit" better on the fancy built-in fractions because they're hand kerned. But all in all, I'm impressed with how well these turn out with just a few clicks.

Once you have a good fraction set up, write down the settings - the font size, superscript amount and Character Spacing amount - so you don't have to swing up your Zoom factor the next time you need a good-looking fraction.

And if you're going to use a specific fraction more than once, you should turn it into an AutoCorrect entry. We're all about saving time remember? Read on, I'll explain how to do it.

Turning Fractions Into Autocorrect Entries
Turning a hand-formatted fraction into an AutoCorrect entry is pretty easy, but there's one stumbling point: you need to create one entry for each font and point size that you're going to use. For example, if you want a "2/3" fraction for Garamond 11 point and a "2/3" fraction for Arial 10 point, you need to create two different AutoCorrect entries.

Here's how:

  1. Select the fraction.
  2. Click Tools | AutoCorrect (or AutoCorrect Options, if you're using Word 2002/Office XP).
  3. Your fraction appears in the With: box.
  4. Check the button next to the With: box marked "Formatted Text".
  5. Click in the Replace box, and type whatever text you want to have replaced by the fraction. For example, my "2/3" fraction formatted in Garamond 11 point (the font I usually use for business correspondence) is:

  6. Click OK.

From that point on, whenever I type g2/3 in a document, Word replaces what I typed with a perfectly formatted "2/3".


There are times for all computer users when you just want to go back in time. You want to recover some words of wisdom from an earlier draft, or perhaps a file has been deleted or lost in the ether.

Buried in Word there are some options that can help you retrieve what you thought was lost.

First, Word can be told to automatically keep backup copies of documents. Under Tools | Options | Save there's an option 'Always create backup copy'. Make sure that's ON, and Word will make backups for you - but they're only "one deep".

When you save a document Word will take the old version of the document (the one that you're about to overwrite with a new version) and rename it with a WBK file name extension. So FredDagg.doc when saved becomes Backup of FredDagg.wbk (the previous version) as well as FredDagg.doc (the current version).

Saving again means the saved file becomes a new WBK, replacing the existing backup. Thus you always have both the current version of the document plus a single generation past.

The WBK file is just a Word document with a different name. To open it go to File | Open, select All Files from the list of file types and the WBK files will appear. Click on the file you want and it'll open.


"Computers are supposed to save paper, right? You don't have to make hard copies of information. You just pass it along electronically. However, if your office uses these gizmos as a means to crank out more and more propaganda for the world to have and hold, you might want to consider the following, if you are using Microsoft Word and want to save some trees. And if helping the environment doesn't excite you, this tip will also help you save money, a strong motivator for many. The beauty of it all is that very few, if any, will notice what you did.

What can you change?

> Word's default margin settings (in the U.S.) are an inch at the top and bottom and 1.25 inches on the sides. Change them all to .9 of an inch. You've just increased the printable area on your page.

> The default font size is 12 point. If you change it to 11, nobody will notice. (If they do, make it 11.5.)

> The line spacing is single spacing by default. Why not change it to .9 and gain an extra line every 10 lines?

> The character spacing is normal. Why not condense it by .2 of a point?

> Finally, use a font that works well with these suggestions. Some take more space than others. Choose a font that is economical with space and it will be economical for your pocketbook."

While Word has lots of "tunnels" for changing specific defaults, if you want to make wholesale changes nothing beats working on the default template directly. Here's the easiest way I know to do that:

> Click Start | Search | For Files and Folders. (In Windows XP it's Start | Search | All Files and Folders.) Search for a file called normal.dot.

> If you get more than one hit, look for the normal.dot that's associated with your user profile (your user name will be listed in the path of folders leading to normal.dot).

> If you don't get any hits, you have to coerce Windows into looking for hidden files and folders. In all versions of Windows other than XP, you can do that by double-clicking on My Computer, choosing Tools | Options (or Folder Options), and then clicking the View tab. Click the button marked "Show Hidden Files and Folders" then click OK. (In WinXP, in the Search pane itself, you have to click More Advanced Search Options, then check the box next to "Search hidden files and folders.")

> Once you've found normal.dot, right-click on it and choose Open. That fires up Word, with normal.dot loaded. Make the changes John suggests, or any others that you want to take effect with each new blank document, and when you're done, click File, Close, and save changes.

Squishy Justification - Make Right Justify a little bit tighter - here is how

Squishy justification produces even better results if it's combined with Condensed Character Spacing. This reduces the space between letters, and if used sensibly it can produce a more compact (but still easily readable) text which looks very good indeed when squishy-justified.

Here's what to do. Select the text you want to condense. Click Format/Font and the Character Spacing tab; now click Spacing and select Condensed; then click By and type 0.2; and finally click OK. (Or if you prefer the keyboard, type
Alt+S, C,
Alt+B, 0.2, Enter).
This reduces the space between letters by 0.2 points, which works quite well for 10-12 point text, but you can experiment with other settings if you wish.

When you use condensed character spacing and squishy justification together, you get a printout which is dramatically better than Word's standard justification. It's particularly effective in narrow columns. Try it, and you'll see what I mean.

! - For me, the worst feature of Word is its primitive handling of justified text. If I type a fully-justified document, some lines are quite densely packed, but others have large, ugly gaps between the words. The overall effect is patchy and amateurish, and certainly not up to acceptable typesetting quality.

* - The reason is that Word justifies text only by ADDING space between words. So as it nears the end of a line, Word tries to fit the next word into the remaining space. If it won't fit, Word distributes the remaining space between the words already on the line, and moves the next word to the next line. And if that word is a long one, the space that has to be inserted between the existing words is large and unsightly.

OK, that's how Word handles justification. What's the alternative? Well, why not REDUCE the space between words instead? If a long word won't quite fit the line, the program could try to make room for it by moving the existing words closer together. Of course, there has to be a limit: the program, or the user, must define a minimum (and a maximum) acceptable inter-word space. But subject to these limits, inter-word spacing becomes noticeably more even and less patchy.

Sounds unrealistic? Well, that's how WordPerfect handles justification. Dammit, it's how my venerable old mid-80s word processor handled it. And the results are DRAMATICALLY better than Word's clumsy, amateurish justification.

Now here's the good news: Word 2000 is capable of producing proper WordPerfect-style justification as described above. Just click Tools|Options, select the Compatibility tab, and check the box beside "Do full justification like Word Perfect 6.x for Windows".

Type some text with Ctrl-J justification, and watch what happens as you come to the end of the line. Instead of prematurely wrapping, the text will actually shuffle to the left and try to fit the word onto the current line.

Now try it with an existing document. Make sure it's fully justified (type Ctrl+A to select the entire document, then type Ctrl+J to justify it); then print a page. Now activate WP-style justification (Tools|Options, Compatibility, check "Do full justification..."); and print the same page.

Compare the two print-outs: you'll find that the WP-style page has fewer ugly gaps between words.

You can use this trick whenever you want to produce slicker, more professional typesetting, and it works pretty well. But although the printed text will look very good, the screen display will NOT, because Microsoft has made no attempt to implement proper WYSIWYG. So you'll find that the words at the start of each screen line are widely spaced, while those at the end of each line are crammed together. But when the line is printed, the spaces will be evenly distributed throughout the line.

To sum up: Word now allows you to produce professional-quality justified text. But it's hidden away in an obscure corner of the program, and it doesn't display properly on the screen.

For Word 97 users - making the spaces closer together is the only option.

If you're looking for each instance of some text in a Word document so you can edit the parts around it there's a fast way to do it without the Find dialog box getting in the way.

Press Ctrl + F to open the Find window, enter to text to search for and click on Find. This will jump to the next instance of that text in the document. Then close the Find window by clicking on the X in the top right corner. The Word insertion point will stay with the found text and you can edit it as usual.

To find the next occurrence of the text press Shift + F4, you can do that as many times as you like and edit the document in between each search. Shift + F4 won't work when the Find window is open (pity that).

Find Ctrl + F
Repeat Find Shift + F4

In Word 2000 and Word 2002 (Office XP) you have some other options to repeat a find in either direction. After closing the Find window you can click on the up or down blue arrows on the bottom of the vertical scroll bar.

(To use them, follow the steps in the preceding section, but give each macro a name other than "Restore.")

I have a button-activated macro to swap between default directories for opening files:

  ChangeFileOpenDirectory "d:\websites"

You can assign a macro to a button, click Tools, Customize, Commands, Macros, and drag the macro's name onto a convenient Toolbar or menu.

Also, in Word, 1/2 and 1/4 appear as fractions but not 13/16 or 12/122. To achieve that, select the potential fraction and run this:

  Dim fractionbit As Range
  With Selection
      forwardslash = InStr(.Text, "/")
      Set fractionbit = ActiveDocument.Range _
      (Start:=.Start, End:=.Start + forwardslash - 1)
      fractionbit.Font.Superscript = True
      Set fractionbit = ActiveDocument.Range _
      (Start:=.Start + forwardslash, End:=.End)
      fractionbit.Font.Subscript = True
  End With

  Run this on all fractions including 1/4 etc to ensure an
  equal angle for the slash.

Rex writes for three magazines in the UK: Windows Made Easy, PC Home, and PC Plus. He also designs websites like the award-winning www.nsfscot.org.uk .

The question, with a few minor variations, goes something like this: "Is there a way to tell Word that I want it to pick back up where I left off? That is, I want to be able to start Word, have it open the file that I last had open, and move back to where I was working in that document the last time I shut it down."

Ends up there are many ways to skin this cat. More than that, exploring each of the different ways to solve the problem can teach you a lot about how Word works - and how you can make Word work for you.

I'm going to start with the most intrusive method imaginable - I'm going to give you folks who asked for a Word restore feature exactly what you asked for. As time allows, in coming weeks, I'll show you different ways to change the feature so it's more usable.

But you don't want to have Word go back to an earlier document and edit all of the time. Okay, fairnuf, try this macro instead.

The most direct approach is to have Word do precisely what you folks asked - that is, every time Word starts, we'll have it open the most recently used file (the "#1" file on the File menu), then go back to where you were last performing edits.

Along the way, you'll have a chance to write a real Word Visual Basic for Applications macro, and get it to work. I promise.

WARNING! This approach works with any recent version of Word, from the original Word 97 to the latest Word 2002. If you can't find the menu items I'm talking about, somebody may have decided that you shouldn't be allowed to write macros. There are several ways to prevent you from writing macros, from making Word's normal.dot template read-only, to a few weird viruses that manage to lock up normal.dot, to telling Word not to install VBA - one of those great new features in Word 2002 that some system administrators really wanted. If you look and can't see the things I'm talking about, you may have to yell real loud at your system administrator to be able to get at the guts of Word.

Now that my spleen's vented, here's how to get Word whipped into shape:

1. Inside Word, click Tools, Macro, Macros.

2. In the Macro Name box, type


(all one word; capitalization doesn't matter) and hit Enter. Word responds by starting Visual Basic for Applications and building a procedure for you that looks like this:

Public Sub AutoExec()

End Sub

3. Type in two lines, making the AutoExec routine look like this:

Public Sub AutoExec()
Open Application.GoBack
End Sub

4. Click File, Close and return to Microsoft Word. When you leave Word, if you're asked, make sure you say YES to saving changes to normal.dot.

That's all it takes. The next time you start Word, it'll run the AutoExec macro, which in turn opens the most recently used file - the one that shows up as #1 on the File menu. Then Word will Go Back to the last place in the document where you were editing.

Well, OK, I lied.

In the preceding section I told you that the AutoExec macro I built would restore Word to its old condition, with the most recent document open, and the insertion point sitting where you last performed edits.

That's not quite true. In my experience, the macro always opens the most recent document. That part's fine. But about 5% of the time the GoBack command doesn't work right. Your document opens, but the insertion point stays at the beginning of the doc.

When the GoBack command doesn't work right, hitting Shift+F5 - which is the keyboard shortcut for GoBack - doesn't work right either. I'm not sure why.

Nope, I'm not using WordMail - that would've been my first culprit. While trying to work through various permutations, I hit the problem in Word 97, 2000, and 2002.

The MS Knowledge Base doesn't seem to have an article on the topic. I don't have multiple files open (a problem detailed in the KB).

Another oddity: in documents that don't GoBack properly, if I try to GoTo "\PrevSel1" in a macro, it doesn't work. If I perform the GoTo manually, I get the error message "This bookmark does not exist".

Last week I offered a "Restore" macro to you folks that was supposed to load the last-used document in Word, then jump to the location where you were last editing the document.

As explained in that issue, it was a coarse macro that I'll improve upon in weeks to come.

If you'll recall, the one big problem I had at the time was getting GoBack to work at all on some documents. That was a new problem for me: I'd never seen GoBack fail before, and it came as something of a shock. (Hey, I've only been using Word for a decade now - and I'm easily shocked, as many a 'Softie can readily attest.)

The root of the problem, as I alluded to last week, is something called the \PrevSel1 bookmark. Word maintains several hidden bookmarks in all of its documents, and \PrevSel1 is one of the more interesting.

As you're editing a document, Word juggles two hidden bookmarks, keeping them maintained over the two most-recently edited locations in your document. They're called \PrevSel1 (covering the stuff you edited most recently) and \PrevSel2 (covering the location of the stuff you edited before you were working on the \PrevSel1 stuff). When you're typing in a document, you can hit Shift+F5, and Word will jump back to \PrevSel1. Hit Shift+F5 again, and Word goes to \PrevSel2. Hit Shift+F5 a third time, and Word jumps to the "current" edited area.

Word nuts call that feature "GoBack", probably because the original WordBasic command was called, uh, GoBack. You could run GoBack in a macro, and Word would Go Back to \PrevSel1. Run it again, and Word went to \PrevSel2. Run it a third time, and you went back to whence you came. There's something philosophical lurking in there.

(By the way, some of you may be skeptical about Word maintaining hidden bookmarks, but I assure you it's true. Vince Chen and I first documented the hidden bookmarks in Word 2.0 in "The Hacker's Guide to Word for Windows", back in 1993. You can see for yourself. Open up a document and edit it in a few places. Click Edit | Find, type \PrevSel1 and hit Enter. See that? Now hit Shift+F5. Does the same thing, eh?)

\PrevSel1 is persistent - if you close a document, open it back up again, and hit Shift+F5 (or run a GoBack command), Word goes back to the most recently edited location in the document. Slick. And handy.

Last week, if you'll recall, I was at wit's end trying to figure out why some documents didn't get \PrevSel1 set properly. In fact, about 5% of the time, in my little test, I found that \PrevSel1 wasn't set at all: documents were actually being put to bed without their \PrevSel1 bookmarks set. Without the hidden \PrevSel1 bookmark, the Shift+F5 GoBack command doesn't work right, and the macro that I wrote for you folks doesn't work worth a hill of beans.

Ends up that there's a bug in Word 2000 and Word 2002. Andria Pinson caught it, and when she showed it to me, I couldn't believe my eyes.

Word 2000 and Word 2002 don't set \PrevSel1 correctly in a document under one specific set of circumstances. When you shut down Word, if you have any open documents that haven't been saved, Word asks if you want to save changes. If you click Yes, Word sets \PrevSel1 correctly in all documents except the very last one that's closed.

I have no idea why. Word 97 works fine. But Word 2000 and Word 2002 fail to set \PrevSel1 on the last document saved when Word is shutting down.

Dave Rado - a Microsoft MVP in Word, and all-around Word genius - wrassled with the bug and came up with a decent (but really, really hairy!) fix. A big part of the problem is that Word's exits are horrendous: there's no single exit method, and all sorts of other bugs get entwined in the mess.

Anyway, if you'd like to see a nifty solution to the \PrevSel1 bug, check out http://www.mvps.org/word/FAQs/AppErrors/GoBackFix.htm .

But you don't want to have Word go back to an earlier document and edit all of the time. Okay, fairnuf, try this macro instead.

Of course, you don't want to run GoBack all the time: when you start Word with an existing document (by double-clicking on the document in Windows Explorer, for example), you don't want to have Word open the last-used file and return to the last point in the file where you made edits. Fair enough.

Let's refine things a bit, so you have a choice about how and when GoBack gets run. Along the way, you'll see how to create your own custom macros, and store them away where they don't get run automatically every time you start Word.

WARNING! This approach works with any recent version of Word, from the original Word 97 to the latest Word 2002. If you can't find the menu items I'm talking about, somebody may have decided that you shouldn't be allowed to write macros. There are several ways to prevent you from writing macros, from making Word's normal.dot template read-only, to a few weird viruses that manage to lock up normal.dot, to telling Word not to install VBA - one of those great new features in Word 2002 that some system administrators really wanted. If you look and can't see the things I'm talking about, you may have to yell real loud at your system administrator to be able to get at the guts of Word.

We'll create a macro called Restore that runs GoBack:

1. Inside Word, click Tools, Macro, Macros. If you created an AutoExec macro last time that runs GoBack, you'll want to disable it so it doesn't run every time you start Word. The best way to do that is to rename AutoExec (that way if Word starts acting weird, you only have to rename the macro back to AutoExec and life will go on). To rename AutoExec, click AutoExec, click Organizer, then Rename and give AutoExec a new name like AutoExecSave.

2. In the Macro Name box, type


and hit Enter. Word responds by starting Visual Basic for Applications and building a procedure for you that looks like this:

Public Sub Restore()

End Sub

3. Type in four lines lines, making the Restore routine look like this:

Public Sub Restore()
  If MsgBox("OK to restore Word?", vbOKCancel) = vbOK Then
  End If
  End Sub

4. Click File, Close and return to Microsoft Word. When you leave Word, if you're asked, make sure you say YES to saving changes to normal.dot.

Now that you have a macro called Restore, you'll need a way to run it. The best way I've found is to create a shortcut on my Windows Desktop that start Word, then runs Restore. Here's how:

1. In Windows, double-click on My Computer. Windows Explorer will start.

2. Navigate down to the program winword.exe. (Usually, it's inside the Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office folder, but you can find it using Start\Find). Right-click on winword.exe and pick Send To\Desktop (Create Shortcut).

3. Back out on the Windows Desktop, right-click the new "Shortcut to Winword.exe" icon and pick Properties.

4. In the box marked Target, you have to add a switch that says /mRestore. You should have something that looks like this:

"C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office\WINWORD.EXE" /mRestore

On your machine, the part inside the quotes will probably be different, but there has to be a space before the \ and no space after the m.

5. Click OK. Then back out on the Desktop, right-click the icon and rename it to, oh, Restore Word or something equally poetic.

From that point on, every time you double-click Restore Word on the Windows Desktop, Word will come up and run the Restore macro. You can click OK to restore, or Cancel and Word comes up normally.


The approach there is good (in my humble estimation) because it lets you start Word Restore from an icon on your desktop that specifically restores Word: if you start Word by double-clicking on a document in Windows Explorer, Restore doesn't run, and all is right with the world.

The approach in the last issue is bad because it doesn't solve the GoBack bug that I talked about a earlier in this set. It's also bad because invalid entries can appear on Word's Most Recently Used file list. (Simple example: open a file on diskette, edit it, close Word, and remove the diskette.)

There's yet another way to skin this sorry ol' cat, that involves some really interesting programming - going out to Windows itself. If you enjoy the challenge, check out the Word MVP article at

(This article provided by Woody's Office Watch - WOW)

FIXING THE PAGE MARGINS - When your footer doesn't print.

This has to do more with the way your printer operates than for anything Word is or isn't doing. There is a certain amount of space at the bottom of each page by which the printer can not print. The rollers which guide the paper need to have something to hold onto. If it isn't there the printer is directed not to apply the ink
When page numbers at the foot of the page don't print you'll need to adjust the footer margins to force the footer text higher on the page so the footer's contents print properly.

To do this, choose File, Page Setup, Margins tab and increase the Footer setting which is the distance between the bottom of the page and the bottom of the footer. Push it up in small increments each time checking the result, after each adjustment, in Print Preview mode to see if the page numbers appear on the screen. When they do, print a page to test the printed version. If necessary keep adjusting the setting until the printed version is correct.

When you get the ideal setting where the page numbers print but you don't have too big a gap at the foot of the page, take note of it. You can set this as the default setting for Word if you choose File, Page Setup, Margins tab, make the setting and click Default -- it will now be the default for all new documents based on the current template which, in most cases, is Normal.dot. For existing documents, however, you'll have to make the changes manually, hence the need to write it down so you don't have to experiment with it each time.

While we're on the topic of page numbers, some of you may be experiencing problems with printing Page x of y in the header or footer of your document. While this type of page numbering works as expected in Word 97, it failed in Word 2000 when the page numbers didn't calculate correctly. This was a known problem and was fixed in Microsoft Office 2000 Service Release 1/1a (SR-1/SR-1a).

If you're experiencing problems either upgrade or check out Microsoft's Knowledge Base articles Q189175 and Q234287 which contain information about the problem and workarounds which include disabling Show/Hide , disabling Background printing and disabling printing in reverse order. Perhaps the simplest method of solving the problem, however, is to specify the number of page to print. So, for example, if you have a document of 10 pages you can print it by choosing File, Print and, in the Pages area type 1-10 and click OK.

NO PAGE NUMBERING PLEASE! Often you'll find that the first page of your document is a cover sheet or title page so you won't want that page numbered at all. Instead the second page of the document should have the page number 1 appearing on it. This is a fairly easy effect to achieve and there are a number of ways of doing it. Probably the most simple is to use Word's Page Numbering option and, to do this, choose Insert, Page Numbers and disable the Show number on first page checkbox. From the Position and Alignment dropdown lists choose the place the page numbers should appear on your document. Click Format and set the Start at: option to 0 and click Ok twice.

The result is that the first page, which is now numbered 0, won't have a page number printed on it because you disabled the Show number on first page checkbox. The second page of the document which is numbered, consecutively, page 1, will have this page number printed on it. All subsequent pages will be numbered one smaller than their actual position in the document which is exactly the result you're looking for.


I've just received word from Microsoft that they've discovered a new variation on this old security problem: if the document attached to that malicious template is in RTF format, the security sequences do NOT fire. Word opens RTF files without a hiccup. You may know that RTF files can't contain macros, and you might therefore ass/u/me that opening an RTF file can't run a macro - and you'd be wrong. Using this little trick, opening an RTF file can run a   macro, and you wouldn't even know about it.

There's more. Since RTF format files frequently appear with .doc file name extensions, that means it's possible for you to open a .doc file and have it run a malicious macro, bypassing all internal security.

It's a serious security exposure, and if you use Word 97 or Word 2000, you should download and apply the patch immediately. (Word 2002 isn't involved; its anti-virus features fire properly.) Full details, download and installation instructions are at

As usual, this security breach hasn't been used to our knowledge - there aren't any viruses out and about that take advantage of the vulnerability. Yet. Now that Microsoft has made it public, some cretin will no doubt try to employ the technique to infect your computer.

You can forestall problems by telling Word to confirm file format conversions every time it opens a file (Tools | Options | General, check the box marked "Confirm conversions at Open"). And of course you should install, update, and religiously use one of the major commercial antivirus products.

Microsoft should've caught the problem and fixed it a year ago, along with the original security exposure. Unfortunately, they didn't think to look for RTF files with attached templates. (Truth be told, I didn't think of it, either.) The problem apparently cropped up during an internal review. In this instance, the 'Softies deserve credit for their excellent sleuthing, full disclosure, and quick fix. They also deserve a Bronx cheer for missing the problem in the first (and second) place.

The hole was plugged in Office XP before it shipped; for obvious reasons, the existence of the exposure has been kept under wraps until today, when a fully tested patch for Office 97 and 2000 was ready for rollout.

For more information from Microsoft concerning the patch see:


Microsoft recently posted a bunch of Office XP Resource Kit files, including a "converter pack" that's full of all the file converters you need to change Word files to Mac format, or back and forth between the various versions of the Office applications. The converter pack is billed as being an Office XP download, but in fact, just about everybody will have some occasion to use one of the filters.

and take a look at the converter pack. Or, if you're knee deep in OXP and want to look at the whole Resource Kit, go to


If you've ever worked with footnotes in Word, you'll have come across Word's infuriating tendency to put some of the footnotes on a different page from the footnote reference. This is a known bug, and the solution is covered at: http://www.mvps.org/word/FAQs/Formatting/FootnoteOnDiffPage.htm

Another thing that's really crazy is that the same character style (Footnote Reference) is used by both the footnote reference and by the number in the footnote proper. So Word inserts a superscripted number in the footnote, although all the style manuals tell you that the number in the footnote should *not* be superscripted, but that it *should* be followed by a period (it isn't) and should have a hanging indent (it doesn't). Luckily, you can fix this as well using a very simple little macro:

And here's the last Word in footnotes: how do you get a footnote to span the columns of a multi-column document? Not something you should really have to worry about, of course - footnotes *should* span the columns, shouldn't they? But they don't. Do you get the impression that the guys who developed the footnotes feature never have to use the ^%$#@! things?

Again, there is a workaround, and it's written up at: http://www.mvps.org/word/FAQs/Formatting/FtnoteSpanColumns.htm

Number lists in Word 97 get all fouled up. Why?

It's a known problem. Er, "issue." If you have a numbered list in Word 97, and one of the items in the list contains a Unicode symbol (which is a symbol from a Unicode font that's outside the first 255 characters), paragraph numbering can suddenly go haywire, onscreen. There's a detailed Knowledge Base article at
that goes into details. If your lists are renumbering themselves incorrectly on-screen, take a look at that article.

No time to read a lengthy document? Have Word summarize it for you. Here is how:

You can tell Word to display a summary of your document fairly easily as
      1. On the Tools menu, choose AutoSummarize.
      2. In the AutoSummarize dialog box, click "Hide

         everything but the summary without leaving the
         original document." 3. Click OK.
If you're already viewing a summary, you can hide it and
return to the full document as follows:
      1. Locate the AutoSummarize toolbar.
      2. On the AutoSummarize toolbar, click Close.
 This built-in approach leaves plenty to be desired. For one
 thing, it takes too many mouse clicks. For another, it
 requires you to click buttons with sesquipedelian captions
 like "Hide everything but the summary without leaving the
 original document." If you've got time to read captions
 like that, you don't need a summary; you've got time to
 read an entire document.
 To me, summaries are all about SPEED. If they take more
 than a click to show and hide, then they're TOO SLOW. My
 custom AutoSummarize button lets me show and then hide a
 summary faster than you can read this sentence. And that
 allows me to get a lot more benefit out of Word's
 AutoSummarize function.
 Setting up a custom AutoSummarize function is extremely
 easy. Don't be put off by the number of steps. You can
 complete them in less than two minutes and from then on
 you'll be showing and hiding document summaries far faster
 than my brother-in-law can read his yellow-soaked
 Here's how to customize Word's AutoSummarize function for
 maximum speed:
  1. On the Tools menu, choose Macro | Macros...
  2. Under Macro Name, enter ToolsAutoSummarize and click Create.
  3. Edit Word's version of the macro text to read exactly as follows:
  Sub ToolsAutoSummarize()
  On Error Resume Next
  With ActiveDocument
  If .ShowSummary = True Then
  .ShowSummary = False
  .SummaryViewMode = wdSummaryModeHideAllButSummary .SummaryLength = 25 .ShowSummary = True End If End With End Sub
  4. Press Alt+F11 to return to Word.
  5. On the Tools menu, choose Customize and then choose Commands.
  6. In the Categories list, choose All Commands.
  7. In the Commands list, scroll down to ToolsAutoSummarize.
  8. Drag ToolsAutoSummarize out of the list and up to a toolbar.
  9. Drop ToolsAutoSummarize on your favorite toolbar.
  10. Close the Customize dialog box.
 That's all there is to it. To view a summary of a document,
 simply open it and click your new toolbar button . To
 return to the full document, click the same button again.
 Fast, eh? You bet! Now you've got a tool that saves time
 just when time is most critical to you.
 Before stopping to pat yourself on the back, why not
 explore a couple of modifications? Perhaps you'd like to
 see key sentences in context, highlighted in yellow.
 Perhaps you'd like to include fewer sentences. To
 accomplish these changes, proceed as follows:
  1. Press Alt+F11 to return to the macro edtor.
  2. Delete the following lines of code from your macro:
  .SummaryViewMode = wdSummaryModeHideAllButSummary .SummaryLength = 25
  3. Insert the following lines of code in place of the deleted lines:
  .SummaryViewMode = wdSummaryModeHighlight
  .SummaryLength = 15
  4. Press Alt+F11 to return to Word and test the results.
  5. Repeat Steps 1 - 4 to restore the original lines of code.
 How does Word's AutoSummarize function work?
 First it analyzes your document and determines key points
 by assigning a score to each sentence. Sentences that
 contain words used frequently in the document are given a
 higher score. A percentage of the highest-scoring sentences
 are displayed in the summary.
 According to Microsoft, AutoSummarize works best on
 well-structured documents, including reports, articles, and
 scientific papers. Personally, I find that it works well on
 correspondence and lengthy newsletter articles.


You can tell whether a Word style is indented or not by simply locating it in the Style list. Suppose you want to know if Heading 8 is indented. All you have to do is choose Format-Style, click the arrow at the right side of the Style list box and locate Heading 8. If it is indented, the indentation will appear in the list.


It is very easy to convert a text box to a shape. Let's take a look at how to do this.

Run Word and then choose Insert, Text Box. Draw the text box using your mouse and then type in some text. Now, select the text box by right-clicking it and then go to the Drawing toolbar and choose Draw, Change AutoShape. Select one of the shapes, and your text box will magically assume your selected shape with the text inside the shape.


When you select a particular Heading from Word's list of text styles and type in your Heading, pressing Enter tells Word to switch you automatically to Body Text in the subsequent line.

There may be times when you need to use a particular Heading style again before you switch to the Body Text style. All you have to do is press Shift-Enter, then type the second line in the Heading style of your choice.

When you press Shift-Enter to move to a new paragraph (line), Word retains the style of the current line.


When you want to find a specific word in a Word 97 document, you can press Ctrl-F to open the Find And Replace dialog box. Then you type your word and click Find Next.

If you would like to locate all occurrences of the same word without having to leave the Find And Replace dialog box open, you can just click the double down arrow at the bottom of the scroll bar. This takes you down the page to the next occurrence of the word you entered in the dialog box. You can repeat this until you have located all occurrences.

If you want to search from the current point upward, click the double up arrow.


Although you can use the Format Borders and Shading dialog box to remove a border from a Word document, you can accomplish the same thing without any dialog box at all. Let's say, for example, that you've formatted a paragraph with borders only. If you want to delete the borders, just click the paragraphs and press Ctrl-Q. This removes all direct paragraph formatting.

Suppose you would like to remove the borders, but keep all of the other paragraph formatting. Use the Tables and Borders button on the Formatting toolbar. Click the paragraph that has the borders, then click the Tables And Borders button (its icon is a pencil over a four-pane square). When the Tables And Borders floating toolbar opens, click the arrow at the right side of the Borders button (it's the second button from the right). Now select the last one in the list (no border).

Click the Close box to dismiss the floating toolbar.


Working with cells in Word is much like using cells in Excel. You can select single cells or groups of cells. Let's say you have a Word table and you want to add text in the upper-left cell. Just click the cell and type in your text. To move to the next cell, press the right arrow key.

If you have text in a Word table, click the upper-left cell, then press Tab to move to the cell to the right and select the text in the first cell. To select a single cell, triple-click that cell.

To select an entire column, move the mouse pointer over the top edge of the cell. When the pointer turns to a black down arrow, click the mouse button.

To select the entire table, choose Table, Select Table, or click inside the table and press Alt-Shift-5 (use the numeric keypad, because the 5 key at the top of the keyboard won't work).


There is an easy way to make a document fit on a single page, for those times when you've edited the text as well as you could and even reduced the font, but the document is still too long..

Word 97 has a Shrink To Fit option. Run Word and load your document. Now choose File, Print Preview. When the Print Preview window opens, click the Shrink To Fit button in the toolbar (its icon is two pages with an arrow pointing at a single page).

This method works very well, as long as you don't have too much extra text. If you don't like the looks of the change, press Ctrl-Z to undo it.


When you want to work with an important Word document and you don't want to take any chances with it at all, you can simply open a copy and work with the copy. This leaves your original document intact.

To do this, just run Word and choose File, Open. When the Open dialog box appears, right-click the file you want to open and choose Open As Copy. Word opens a copy of the file. You will notice in the Word title bar that the file is named Copy Of Myfile.doc (where Myfile.doc is the name of your document).


Here's a weird one I bumped into while perusing the Microsoft Knowledge Base. Apparently if you insert a Word Object from File (Insert | Object | Create from File) and text in that Word file is formatted as underlined, when the text comes into your main Word document or Excel worksheet, it sometimes appears on-screen with the line in the middle of the characters - what most of us would call Strikethrough.

According to MSKB article Q220384, this is a bug. It arises from the fact that what you're seeing on the screen isn't text at all - it's a specific kind of picture. You can verify that fact by clicking on the inserted text, and pulling on the dragging handles. Sometimes the picture isn't rendered very well on the screen, making an underline appear as if it's Strikethrough. Rest assured that the text is underlined, though, and it'll print that way. Moreover, if you adjust your Zoom setting (View | Zoom), the underline may well appear correctly on the screen. Then again, it might not.

Stop Warping your mouse in large documents. Switch to sublight speed (It's a StarTrek thing). Make mouse selections in Word more manageable with these key mouse combinations.

If you've ever worked with a good-sized document you know the feeling. You use the mouse to select some text, start dragging down, down, down, slowly, slowly - and all of a sudden your mouse takes off like a jackrabbit in heat. Whop! A split second later, you're down a whole page. Whop! Ten pages. Whop! Whop! Whop! Ten more. Or is it 20?

So you try to back up, and drag the mouse against the top of the screen. Whop! Whop! Whop! Suddenly you're ten pages above where you started - and the only reason why you know you're above the starting point is because the selected text appears at the bottom of the screen, not the top. You're lucky you installed those rubber bumpers on your eyeballs, eh?

Word's been Whop! Whop! Whopping! - if you'll forgive my creative gerund - since the days of version 1.0. Actually, in versions 1.0, 2.0, and sometimes 6.0, Word went Whop! Whop! Crash!, but that's another story. As machines get faster, the problem gets worse.

Personally, it drives me up a wall. After muttering "jai yen" under my breath a few dozen times (that's the Thai phrase for "cool heart" or, more loosely, "calm down, turkey"), I remember the two main tricks for selecting big blocks of text:

> Click-Shift-Click - this is the easiest one. Click at the beginning of the block you want to select. Scroll down to the end. Hold down the shift key and click again. That's all there is to it.

> Click-Shift-Ctrl-End - if you want to select everything to the end (or the beginning) of the document, click where you want the selection to start, hold down the Shift key and the Ctrl key, and push End (to select to the end of the doc) or Home (to select to the beginning). Those are two of the few key combinations I ever use.

If you really, really want to scroll while selecting text - and you have a mouse with a wheel - try this nifty little trick: click where you want the selection to start, and hold down the left button while you rotate the wheel. It's amazing how much control you have when you click and rotate at the same time.


If your business uses many form letters, you might benefit from using a scanned signature. Simply scan your signature and save it as a BMP or JPG file. Then you can just use Insert, Picture, From File to insert the picture into your form letter. Make sure you have a very clean scan. In some cases, the background of the scanned signature may show up as a light gray.


When you press F7 to check spelling in a Word document, you also get a grammar check. But say you already knows you done good on the grammar (Please don't write, I know done good is bad grammar). You can tell Word to check only the spelling. Choose Tools, Options. When the Options dialog box opens, click the Spelling & Grammar tab. Now deselect the check box labeled Check Grammar With Spelling and click OK to close the dialog box and apply your settings.

Now, when you press F7, Word checks only the spelling.

How can I import and export all my AutoCorrect entries, so they can be transferred to another machine?

Copy any *.acl files from c:\windows\ on one machine to the same directory on the other. In Word 97, the file is usually called [username]001.acl, whereas in Word 2000 it is usually called [username].acl; so if copying it from a machine with Word 97 installed to one with Word 2000 installed, you may need to rename it; and if the username is different on the second machine you will certainly need to rename it.

You can check what the filename should be, on both machines, by looking at the following registry keys: It may be listed as "C:\WINDOWS\Default.acl" if you do not use Work Groups for Word.

Word 97:


Word 2000:


Note that if you use this method, any entries on machine 2 that are not on machine 1 will be lost.

Here is what you will find in the Macro8.dot. It is an explanation on how to use this and other macros from the Microsoft team: To look at it on your own machine open Word. Select Open Navigate to C:\Program Files\Microsoft Office\Office\Macros Be sure you have select the files of type as *.DOT* or ALL FILES Open Macro8.dot

Follow the instructions on how to activate the Macro.

However, the Microsoft utilities don't cater for AutoCorrect entries that consist of multiple paragraphs, or that contain tables; and if either are encountered, the macro will fail to complete. So, with the permission of MVP contact at Microsoft, They have written a new version of their utility (AutoCorrect.dot) which does cater for such entries. It is an 18k zip file, which you can download from here. It's completely self-explanatory. Simply follow the instructions if your Auto-Correct has multiple paragraphs, or that contain tables. You will need the AutoCorrect.dot file.

This can be stored to a disk and transported to your other machine. Be sure to place the proper file in the proper folder and choose to overwrite when prompted.


I'll never forget the look on my friend's face when she tried to use Word to type the lyrics to the US National Anthem. She started with:

O say! Can you see?

Hit Enter, and that was the end of it. The "O" was replaced by a bullet, all the subsequent paragraphs were bulleted, she was ready to kill the nearest Word cognoscenti (guess who?), and she hadn't the slightest idea what she had done wrong.

Of course, she hadn't done anything wrong. It was Word. Again.

Word has this nasty habit of AutoFormatting everything in sight. Sometimes it guesses right. Sometimes it guesses wrong.

You can take back control of Word's AutoFormatting nightmare by clicking on Tools | AutoCorrect, bringing up the AutoFormat As You Type tab, and clearing the checkboxes on any or all of the following:

Headings (applies "Heading n" styles to standalone sentence fragments) Borders (if you type ___ or --- more than a few times, Word turns it into a line)

Tables (type ---+----+----+ and see what happens)

Dates (which appear in a ToolTip - not too intrusive; rarely useful)

Automatic bulleted lists (turns O say! Can you see? - and many more - into a mess)

Automatic numbered lists (type 1. and anything, then hit Enter. Blech)

First line indent (don't touch the Tab key at the beginning of a paragraph)

And many more....


Then again, maybe you like Word's AutoFormatting guesses most of the time and only occasionally do you curse the Word gods.

In that case there's a simple way to reverse Word's automatic formatting, but only if you catch it right away.

The simple Undo command will undo AutoFormatting too. So if Word does one of it's conversions as you're typing just press Ctrl + Z right away and the 'intelligent' change will go away.


Did you know that you could insert a table into a text box? All you have to do is click in the text box and choose Table, Insert Table. You can also right-click inside the text box and choose Draw Table to create a table in the text box.

However, this applies only to text boxes--you can't insert a table into a rectangle or any other shape.


Find out all you ever wanted to know about Word shortCuts at Dave Rado's MVP site. http://www.mvps.org/word/FAQs/General/CommandsList.htm

In my endless quest to save you keystrokes, I now present a tip on how to create two-part shortcuts.

One use for two-part shortcut keys is to make it easier to assign headings in your Word documents. For example, you could press Alt-H and then type in 1, 2, 3, and so forth to tell Word which heading to use.

Suppose you frequently use Heading 8 and would like to make a shortcut key assignment. Run Word and choose Format, Style. When the Style dialog box opens, click Heading 8 to select it and then click Modify. In the Modify Style dialog box, click Shortcut Key. Now press Alt-H and type 8.

Click Assign to assign the keys, then click Close to close the dialog box. Back in Modify Style, select the Add To Template and Automatically Update check boxes. Click OK to close the dialog box. Back in the Style dialog box, click Apply to close the dialog box and apply your selections.

You can repeat this process for other headings, too.


When you need to change the font for a selection in a Word document, you usually just select the text and choose Format, Font. But you should be aware that if you select text with mixed fonts or font formats, then choose Format, Font, none of the fonts will appear in the entry boxes.

For example, if you open a blank Word document and type

This is a test. And so is this.

all in the same font and format, you can select the text and choose Format, Font. When the Font dialog box opens, the font name, style, and size all appear in their usual entry boxes. But if you set the first sentence to a different font, then make it bold, no entries appear in the boxes because Word can't report information on a mixture of fonts, styles, and sizes.

Reformatting in Word 97/2000

These two tricks earn my vote as the best-kept secrets in Word 97 / 2000. If you're using Word 2000, they aren't quite as obtuse, but it helps to know what Word is doing, and why.

How many times have you applied formatting to a paragraph or a bunch of characters, and then changed your mind - all you want to do is get rid of the bloody mess and start all over again?

Let's look at each kind of formatting in turn ...



As you all know by now paragraph formatting is stored in the paragraph mark. You don't stand a snowball's chance of figuring out how Word is formatting your paragraphs unless you can see the paragraph marks. You have paragraph marks showing, right? (Tools | Options | View tab, check the box called Paragraph marks. Check the box marked Tab characters, too, while you're at it.)

Every paragraph has a style. You can see the name of the style in the Style drop-down box, which is the first box on the Formatting Toolbar. Chances are good your Formatting Toolbar is either the second toolbar visible on your screen, or it's stuck somewhere in the middle of the Standard Toolbar, the first toolbar on your screen.

Say you've messed up the formatting on one of your paragraphs - maybe you've accidentally set it to align to the right, or you've got the before and after spacing or indent settings so turned around you can't figure out what's happening. If you want to completely get rid of all the manually applied formatting, and return the paragraph to its pristine state (that is, you want to return to the settings defined for that style), you have two options.

The first method is easy to remember, but time-consuming: you can click once inside the disturbed paragraph, note the name of the Style in the Style drop-down box, click the down-arrow on the right side of the box, and pick the same Style name. Word may ask if you want to "Update the style to reflect recent changes?" or "Reapply the style of the formatting to the selection?" If you're asked, take the second option - to reapply the style. When you're done, the paragraph will be restored to its original formatting.

The second method is hard to remember, but very quick: just select the paragraphs that are causing you problems, and hit Ctrl+Q. I have no idea why Microsoft chose "Q" for the shortcut key - maybe it's a tribute to James Bond's trickmeister? - but Ctrl+Q resets paragraph formatting, no questions asked.
Return to paragraph reformatting

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ CHARACTER FORMATTING

Unlike paragraph formatting, character formatting is stored with the character itself. The method for restoring character formatting to a bunch of screwed-up characters differs, depending on whether you're using Word 2000 or not.

If you're using Word 2000, simply select the characters and, in the Style drop-down box, choose "Default paragraph font" - the first choice on the list. In any version of Word, you can also use the Ctrl+Spacebar key combination to restore the characters to their default font.

No matter how you do it, Word removes all formatting from the selected characters, and returns the characters to the format defined by the paragraph style. If some of the characters have a character style, it doesn't matter: Word removes the character style completely, and imposes the style defined for the paragraph.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ If you think all of this is very confusing and hard to find in Word 2000. Wait until you see Word 2002, in Office XP, due out around the middle of the year. The new Style and Formatting task pane in Word 2002 makes restoring paragraphs and characters to their original format a breeze.

Return to paragraph reformatting
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You can easily convert a text box to another shape. Let's take a look at how to do this.

Run Word and choose Insert, Text Box. Draw the text box using your mouse and type some text. Now select the text box by right-clicking it, then go to the Drawing toolbar and choose Draw, Change AutoShape. Select one of the shapes, and your text box magically assumes your selected shape, with the text inside the shape.

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